The Science.

Unlike so many products from overseas, ours have been TGA-approved. Read more below to see what's inside and the science behind Mindlift.

Bacopa monnieri

What is Bacopa monnieri? 

Bacopa monnieri is nootropic herb also called ‘brahmi’ and is a staple in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. It has been used by Ayurvedic medical practitioners for centuries and used today for a variety of purposes, including improving memory, overall brain function, reducing stress and anxiety.

Benefits: 

Improve visual information processing, learning and memory

  • A double blind placebo study of 46 healthy adults observed that taking 300 mg of Bacopa monnieri daily significantly improved the speed of processing visual information, learning rate, and memory, compared with the placebo treatment (1). 

  • Another 12-week study in 60 older adults found that taking either 300 mg or 600 mg of Bacopa monnieri extract daily improved memory, attention, and the ability to process information, compared with the placebo treatment (2). 

Reduce stress, anxiety and cortisol levels 

  • Research out of Australia and New Zealand suggests Bacopa has positive mood effects and reduction in cortisol levels, pointing to a physiological mechanism for stress reduction (3).

  • In a meta-analysis, Bacopa syrup 30 mL twice daily equiv. to 12g dry of crude extract, for a month long clinical trial in 35 patients with diagnosed anxiety neurosis, demonstrated a significant decrease in anxiety symptoms, level of anxiety, level of disability and mental fatigue and an increase in immediate memory span (6) 

Reduce ADHD symptoms 

  • A study in 31 children aged 6–12 years found that taking 225 mg of Bacopa monnieri extract daily for 6 months significantly reduced ADHD symptoms, such as restlessness, poor self-control, inattention, and impulsivity in 85% of the children (4). 

Supports acetylcholine, dopamine & serotonin 

  •  Current evidence suggests Bacopa acts via the following mechanisms—antioxidant neuroprotection, acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine) (5)

 

References 

  1. Stough C, Lloyd J, Clarke J, Downey LA, Hutchison CW, Rodgers T, Nathan PJ (2015). The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001 Aug;156(4):481-4. doi: 10.1007/s002130100815. Erratum in: Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2015 Jul;232(13):2427. Dosage error in article text. PMID: 11498727.

  2. Peth-Nui T, Wattanathorn J, Muchimapura S, Tong-Un T, Piyavhatkul N, Rangseekajee P, Ingkaninan K, Vittaya-Areekul S (2012). Effects of 12-Week Bacopa monnieri Consumption on Attention, Cognitive Processing, Working Memory, and Functions of Both Cholinergic and Monoaminergic Systems in Healthy Elderly Volunteers. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:606424. doi: 10.1155/2012/606424. Epub 2012 Dec 18. PMID: 23320031; PMCID: PMC3537209.

  3. Benson S, Downey LA, Stough C, Wetherell M, Zangara A, Scholey A (2014). An acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study of 320 mg and 640 mg doses of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on multitasking stress reactivity and mood. Phytother Res. 2014 Apr;28(4):551-9. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5029. Epub 2013 Jun 21. PMID: 23788517.

  4. Dave UP, Dingankar SR, Saxena VS, Joseph JA, Bethapudi B, Agarwal A, Kudiganti V (2014). An open-label study to elucidate the effects of standardized Bacopa monnieri extract in the management of symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. Adv Mind Body Med. 2014 Spring;28(2):10-5. PMID: 24682000.

  5. Aguiar, S., & Borowski, T. (2013). Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri. Rejuvenation research, 16(4), 313–326. 

  6. Gohil, K., & Patel, J. (2010). A review on Bacopa monnieri : Current research and future prospects. International Journal of Green Pharmacy, 4(1), 1.

Ginkgo biloba

What is Ginkgo biloba? 

The Ginkgo leaf has been used medicinally for thousands of years, and is one of the world’s oldest living tree species. It’s the only surviving member of an order of plants so ancient that it’s sometimes referred to as a living fossil. 

While its leaves and seeds are often used in traditional Chinese medicine, modern research primarily focuses on Ginkgo extract for its memory-enhancing and cognitive-boosting properties.  

Benefits:

Memory, cognitive processing and mental recall 

  • Evidence suggests an oral intake of Ginkgo improves cognitive function in individuals with mild to moderate cognitive impairment when used long term (1)

  • A benefit of Ginkgo was found in 188 healthy middle aged individuals who were given Ginkgo compared to a placebo with a result indicating a significant improvement on mental recall (2). 

  • A 14-day administration of Ginkgo was associated with a modest improvement in accuracy in an object working memory task and evidence of increased synaptic inhibition at left temporal and prefrontal sites during the hold component of the working memory task (5). 

  • In a meta-analysis, one of the comparison studies shows increases in brain electrical activity. Electroencephalography (EEG) demonstrated increased alpha band activity during resting eyes, following 40mg,120mg and 240mg single doses of Ginkgo. In a more recent study for EEG with a single 360mg dose for elderly with Alzheimer’s disease, found a decrease in theta power in conjunction with an increase in alpha power associated with Ginkgo supplementation. These findings are in line with the frequency profile that has been associated with good cognitive and memory performance (5). 

  • In another meta-analysis, the author reviewed 4 studies and found greater fatigue reduction with 240 mg/day of Ginkgo for 4 weeks (6)

Anxiety 

  • Gingko shows a similar effect to anti-anxiety drugs to relieve anxiety (3)

Supports acetylcholine 

  • Recent evidence suggests that Ginkgo may have direct effects on the cholinergic system which might explain its cognitive enhancing effects. Ginkgo biloba’s direct cholinergic actions include acetylcholine release (4). 

 

References 

  1. Braun, L., and Cohen, M. (2015). Herbs & Natural Supplements An Evidence-based guide Volume 2. 4th ed. Australia: Elsevier.

  2. Kaschel R (2011). Specific memory effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in middle-aged healthy volunteers. Phytomedicine. 2011 Nov 15;18(14):1202-7. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2011.06.021. Epub 2011 Jul 30. PMID: 21802920.

  3. Faustino TT, Almeida RB, Andreatini R (2010). Medicinal plants for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a review of controlled clinical studies.  Braz J Psychiatry. 2010 Dec;32(4):429-36. Portuguese. doi: 10.1590/s1516-44462010005000026. PMID: 21308265.

  4. P. Nathan (2000). Can the cognitive enhancing effects of Ginkgo biloba be explained by its pharmacology. Medical Hypotheses,Volume 55, Issue 6,

  5. R. B. Silberstein, A. Pipingas, J. Song, D. A. Camfield, P. J. Nathan, C. Stough (2011). "Examining Brain-Cognition Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract: Brain Activation in the Left Temporal and Left Prefrontal Cortex in an Object Working Memory Task", Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 164139, 10 pages, 2011. 

  6. EBD2021-0148- Yadav, V., Bever, C., Bowen, J., Bowling, A., Weinstock-Guttman, B., Cameron, M., Bourdette, D., Gronseth, G. S., & Narayanaswami, P. (2014). Summary of evidence-based guideline: Complementary and alternative medicine in multiplesclerosis: Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology, 82(12), 1083–1092. 

 

Ashwagandha

What is Ashwagandha? 

The root of the botanical Withania somnifera is more commonly known by its Ayurvedic name, Ashwagandha. Ayurveda is a form of traditional Indian medicine that recognises Ashwagandha as an adaptogen that helps to balance the overall system.

Ashwagandha has been studied for its effect on regulating stress hormones to help with symptoms related to anxiety, as well as to support energy balance energy and help relieve fatigue.

Benefits:

Stress, anxiety, mood and wellbeing  

  • In a 6-week study, 88% of people who took Ashwagandha reported a reduction in anxiety, compared with 50% of those who took a placebo (3). 

  • In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study of 64 people with chronic stress, those in the group that supplemented with Ashwagandha reported a 69% reduction in anxiety and insomnia, on average, compared with 11% in the placebo group (1).

  • Ashwagandha safely and effectively improves an individual's resistance towards stress and thereby improves self-assessed quality of life (4) 

  • In a systematic review of 10 studies, 1 study took 1000 mg of Ashawaganda and a placebo, clinical response was coded as a reduction of Hamilton Anxiety Scale score to 12 or below. The same review recorded another study on 81 participants distributed into a naturopathic care group with a 600mg dose Ashwagandha and a psychotherapy care group. The Beck Anxiety Inventory scores decreased significantly in the naturopathic care group. The review revealed most studies concluded with significant improvement in symptoms for the Ashwagandha  group when compared to placebo (7). 

Sleep 

  • A blind placebo study on the efficacy of Ashwagandha for Insomnia and anxiety suggests that Ashwagandha root extract is a natural compound with sleep-inducing potential, it has shown to improve sleep quality and sleep onset latency (2).

Focus, Concentration and Memory 

  • For focus, concentration, and memory, Ashwagandha has been shown in many studies to enhance all aspects of cognitive function. A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study compared the effects of Withania somnifera, and placebo on psychomotor performance in 30 healthy participants. Sensorimotor function, auditory reaction time, and mental arithmetic ability were improved in the Withania somnifera compared to the placebo (6). 

Male Fertility 

  • A study in men who received Ashwagandha for stress experienced higher antioxidant levels and better sperm quality (5)

    References 

    1. Chandrasekhar K, Kapoor J, Anishetty S (2012). A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults. Indian J Psychol Med. 2012 Jul;34(3):255-62. doi: 10.4103/0253-7176.106022. PMID: 23439798; PMCID: PMC3573577.

    2. Langade D, Kanchi S, Salve J, et al. (2019) Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) Root Extract in Insomnia and Anxiety: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study. Cureus 11(9): e5797. doi:10.7759/cureus.5797

    3. Andrade C, Aswath A, Chaturvedi SK, Srinivasa M, Raguram R (2000). A double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the anxiolytic efficacy ff an ethanolic extract of withania somnifera. Indian J Psychiatry. 2000 Jul;42(3):295-301. PMID: 21407960; PMCID: PMC2958355.

    4. Chandrasekhar K, Kapoor J, Anishetty S (2012). A Prospective, Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Safety and Efficacy of a High-Concentration Full-Spectrum Extract of Ashwagandha Root in Reducing Stress and Anxiety in Adults. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine. 2012;34(3):255-262. doi:10.4103/0253-7176.106022

    5.  Mahdi AA, Shukla KK, Ahmad MK, Rajender S, Shankhwar SN, Singh V, Dalela D (2009). Withania somnifera Improves Semen Quality in Stress-Related Male Fertility. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 Sep 29;2011:576962. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nep138. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 19789214; PMCID: PMC3136684.

    6. Karnick CR  (1991). A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies on the effects of Withania somnifera and Panax Ginseng extracts on psychomotor performance in healthy Indian volunteers. Indian Med. 1991;3:1–5.

    7. EBD2021-0008- Pratte, M. A., Nanavati, K. B., Young, V., & Morley, C. P. (2014). An Alternative Treatment for Anxiety: A Systematic Review of Human Trial Results Reported for the Ayurvedic Herb Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera). The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 20(12), 901–908. 

Rhodiola

What is Rhodiola? 

Rhodiola is a herb that grows in the cold, mountainous regions of Europe and Asia. Its roots are considered adaptogens, meaning they help your body adapt to stress when consumed. This root contains more than 140 active ingredients, the two most potent of which are Rosavin and Salidroside. People in Russia and Scandinavian countries have used Rhodiola for centuries to treat anxiety, fatigue and depression and today Rhodiola has also been shown to improve symptoms of burnout and fatigue, which can occur with chronic stress.  

Benefits: 

Stress and anxiety 

  • One study investigated the effects of Rhodiola extract in 101 people with life- and work-related stress. It found significant improvements in symptoms of stress, such as fatigue, exhaustion and anxiety, after just three days. These improvements continued throughout the study (1).

Fatigue, cognitive performance and endurance  

  • A Rhodiola study tested its effects on mental fatigue in 56 physicians working night shift. The physicians were randomly assigned to receive either 170 mg of Rhodiola or a placebo pill per day for two weeks. Rhodiola reduced mental fatigue and improved performance on work-related tasks by 20%, compared to the placebo (2).

  • Rhodiola helps improve exercise endurance and capacity. One study demonstrates  that those given 200 mg of Rhodiola before a cycling test  were able to exercise for an average of 24 seconds longer than those given a placebo (3).

Supports dopamine 

    Pharmacological research suggests that Rhodolia  may facilitate the production and proliferation of dopamine-producing cells (4).  

References 

 

  1. Edwards D, Heufelder A, Zimmermann A (2012). Therapeutic effects and safety of Rhodiola rosea extract WS® 1375 in subjects with life-stress symptoms--results of an open-label study. Phytother Res. 2012 Aug;26(8):1220-5. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3712. Epub 2012 Jan 6. PMID: 22228617.

  2. Darbinyan V, Kteyan A, Panossian A, Gabrielian E, Wikman G, Wagner  (2000).  Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue--a double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty. Phytomedicine. 2000 Oct;7(5):365-71. Doi: 10.1016/S0944-7113(00)80055-0. PMID: 11081987.

  3. De Bock K, Eijnde BO, Ramaekers M, Hespel P. Acute (2004). Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2004 Jun;14(3):298-307. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.14.3.298. PMID: 15256690.

  4. Zhuang, W., Yue, L., Dang, X., Chen, F., Gong, Y., Lin, X., & Luo, Y. (2019). Rosenroot (Rhodiola): Potential Applications in Aging-related Diseases. Aging and disease, 10(1), 134–146. 

Cordyceps

What are Cordyceps?

Traditionally, medicinal mushrooms have been utilised and cultivated in Asia as a tool for longevity, immune support and life-force enhancement.

Cordyceps is a fungus that lives on certain caterpillars in the high mountainous regions of China. Chinese Medicine has used Cordyceps for centuries to treat fatigue, sickness, kidney disease and low libido.

Benefits: 

Increased energy and oxygen supply to muscles (VO2 max) 

  • Multiple studies involving average, non-athletes have shown a slight increase in VO2 max for participants taking Cordyceps supplements over those taking a placebo pill. VO2 max is a measure of how fast the body delivers oxygen to the muscles so that the muscles can use that oxygen to produce energy (1). 

  • In one study, researchers tested their effects on exercise capacity in 30 healthy older adults using a stationary bike. Participants received either 3 grams per day of a synthetic strain of Cordyceps or a placebo pill for six weeks.  By the end of the study, VO2 max had increased by 7% in participants who had taken Cordyceps, while participants given the placebo pill showed no change. (2). 

  References

  1. Hirsch, K. R., Smith-Ryan, A. E., Roelofs, E. J., Trexler, E. T., & Mock, M. G. (2017). Cordyceps militaris Improves Tolerance to High-Intensity Exercise After Acute and Chronic Supplementation. Journal of dietary supplements, 14(1), 42–53. 

  2. Yi, X., Xi-zhen, H. & Jia-shi, Z (2004). Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial and assessment of fermentation product of Cordyceps sinensis (Cs-4) in enhancing aerobic capacity and respiratory function of the healthy elderly volunteers. Chin. J. Integr. Med. 10, 187–192 (2004).

 

 

Acetyl l-carnitine

What is Acetyl l-carnitine? 

Acetyl-L-carnitine or ALCAR  is an amino acid naturally produced in the body to generate energy. It’s also found in animal protein — namely, red meats. People supplement ALCAR to enhance mitochondrial function, cognition, workouts and more.

ALCAR helps the mitochondria (the powerhouses of your cells) burn fat and create more energy especially for your muscles and brain. 

Benefits:

Memory, learning and cognitive functions  

  • ALCAR is a nootropic, or cognitive enhancer, meaning it can help your brain perform better. Studies suggest acetylcholine is a supporter of memory and learning ability (2).

  • Acetyl-L-carnitine treatment  reduces the severity of physical and mental fatigue and increases cognitive functions in elderly. A randomised and controlled clinical trial In 2007 found that Acetyl-L-carnitine "facilitates an increased capacity for physical and cognitive activity by reducing fatigue and improving cognitive functions" (5)

Energy, endurance and metabolism  

  •  ALCAR helps the mitochondria (the powerhouses of your cells) burn fat and create more energy — especially for your muscles and brain (4).

  • It shuttles fuel (in the form of fatty acids) to your muscle mitochondria, which ramps up your energy production and can increase endurance. ALCAR might also push your metabolism toward fat burning while you work out. A 2016 study  indicated that L-carnitine use during a weight loss program led to 1.3kg more fat loss, compared to placebo (3).

Supports acetylcholine

  • Source of acetyl groups. Acetyl groups can be used in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain (1). 

 

References 

  1. Scott D. Mendelson M.D (2008). Metabolic Syndrome and Psychiatric Illness. Burlington, Mass, Academic Press.

  2. Hassle M.E (2006). The Role of Acetylcholine in Learning and Memory. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 2006 Vol 16;6 p.710-715

  3. Pooyandjoo M, (2016). The effect of (L-)carnitine on weight loss in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obesity Reviews, 2016, Vol 17; 10 p. 970-976

  4. Flanagan, J. L., Simmons, P. A., Vehige, J., Willcox, M. D., & Garrett, Q. (2010). Role of carnitine in disease. Nutrition & metabolism, 7, 30. 

  5. Malaguarnera M, Cammalleri L, Gargante MP, Vacante M, Colonna V, Motta M (2007). L-Carnitine treatment reduces severity of physical and mental fatigue and increases cognitive functions in centenarians: a randomized and controlled clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;86(6):1738-44. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/86.5.1738. PMID: 18065594.

 

 

 

L tyrosine

What is L tyrosine? 

L-tyrosine is a conditionally indispensable amino acid required for the production of the neurotransmitters dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline, as well as for the skin pigment melanin. Noradrenaline and adrenaline are the main actors in the body's response to acute stress and, dopamine helps to support a positive mood and mental alertness. Dopamine is associated with motivation, reward and the feeling of enjoyment.

Benefits:

Memory and executive function 

  • Studies on the effects of a single dose of tyrosine supplements revealed short-term benefits on working memory performance and executive functions” (1)

  • Two studies suggest that tyrosine significantly improved working memory during a mentally demanding task, compared to a placebo and was also found to improve cognitive flexibility (3,4)

Supports dopamine 

  • Tyrosine acts as the precursor to dopamine and is known to “increases dopamine availability” (2)

  • Tyrosine supports L dopa which is converted to Dopamine. Catecholamine synthesis begins with the amino acid tyrosine, which comes from the diet. L-tyrosine is converted to (dopa) by tyrosine hydroxylase (7) 

  • Tyrosine is the precursor of the catecholamines, converted to dopamine via L-dopa and the enzymes Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase and to noradrenaline by dopamine β-hydroxylase (5)

  • Dopamine is one of the three main signaling molecules from the catecholamine family. The other two are the famous (or perhaps infamous) fight-or-flight response molecules epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)(6)

  • L-tyrosine does not seem to enhance the release of catecholamines when neurons are firing at their basal rates, but it does when firing rates are increased by stress (8)

References 

  1. Jongkees, B. J., Hommel, B., Kühn, S., & Colzato, L. S. (2015). Effect of tyrosine supplementation on clinical and healthy populations under stress or cognitive demands—A review. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 70, 50–57.

  2. Kühn, S, Düzel, S, Colzato, L. (2019) Food for thought: association between dietary tyrosine and cognitive performance in younger and older adults. Psychological Research 83, 1097–1106 

  3. Colzato, L. S., Jongkees, B. J., Sellaro, R., & Hommel, B. (2013). Working memory reloaded: tyrosine repletes updating in the N-back task. Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience, 7, 200. 

  4. Steenbergen L, Sellaro R, Hommel B, Colzato LS. (2015). Tyrosine promotes cognitive flexibility: evidence from proactive vs. reactive control during task switching performance. Neuropsychologia. 2015 Mar;69:50-5. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.01.022. Epub 2015 Jan 16. PMID: 25598314.

  5. Bloemendaal, M., Froböse, M. I., Wegman, J., Zandbelt, B. B., van de Rest, O., Cools, R., & Aarts, E. (2018). Neuro-Cognitive Effects of Acute Tyrosine Administration on Reactive and Proactive Response Inhibition in Healthy Older Adults. eNeuro, 5(2), ENEURO.0035-17.2018. 

  6. M.E. Gnegy, in: S.T. Brady, G.J. Siegel, R.W. Albers, D.L. Price (2012).  Basic Neurochemistry (Eighth Edition), Academic Press, New York, 2012, pp. 283–299.

  7. Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, Weir GC, De Kretser DM, Giudice LC, Grossman AB, Melmed S, Potts Jr JT, (2016). Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. Book • Seventh Edition •

  8. Young S. N. (2007). L-tyrosine to alleviate the effects of stress?. Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN, 32(3), 224.

Magnesium

What is Magnesium?

Magnesium is an essential mineral that’s important for our bodies to function properly. In fact, Magnesium is involved in more than 300 chemical reactions in the body! Muscles need Magnesium in order to be able to contract, nerves need it to send and receive messages, and your heart needs it to keep beating steadily. So you could say magnesium is pretty important and you might be surprised to learn that a lot of people just don’t get enough magnesium in their diets.

Benefits: 

Cellular energy 

Magnesium is involved in the energy carrying molecule ATP and assists with breaking down glucose for energy and contributes to energy producing cycles (2) 

Nervous system 

Magnesium is involved in the control of several central nervous system processes, depletion can lead to neurological symptoms. (3). 

Supports serotonin 

  • Magnesium influences the serotonergic system. It acts like a cofactor  for tryptophan hydroxylase and intervenes in serotonin receptors, binding in vitro and exhibits a direct enhancing effect on 5-HT1A serotonin receptor transmission (1) 

References 

  1. Cuciureanu MD, Vink R. Magnesium and stress (2011). In: Vink R, Nechifor M, editors. Magnesium in the Central Nervous System [Internet]. Adelaide (AU): University of Adelaide Press; 2011. PMID: 29920004.

  2. Jahnen-Dechent, W., Ketteler, M. 2012. “Magnesium Basics”. Clinical Kidney Journal 5, 1 (Feb): 3-14. https://dx.doi.org/10.1093%2Fndtplus%2Fsfr163

  3. Grober, U., Schmidt, J., Kisters, K. 2015. “Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy.” Nutrients 7, 9 (Sep): 8199-8226. https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/7/9/5388

B2

What is Vitamin B2? 

Vitamin B2 is one of eight B vitamins essential for human health, and it can be found in grains, plants, and dairy products. Vitamin B2 and the other B vitamins help your body build red blood cells and create energy, as well as break down fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. 

Benefits: 

Supports energy production, cellular function 

  • Riboflavin exists in two main forms in cells—flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). These coenzymes play major roles in energy production; cellular function, growth, and development; and metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.   The conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to niacin (vitamin B3) requires FAD. Similarly, the conversion of vitamin B6 to the coenzyme pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (active form of B6) needs FMN. In addition, riboflavin helps maintain normal levels of homocysteine, an amino acid in the blood (1, 2). 

  • Maintain/Support Energy Production, in one systematic review, author comments one or more of the B vitamins are involved in every aspect of the absolutely essential catabolic process of generating energy within cells. With regards to riboflavin, the highest of two doses (4 mg/day) administered for eight weeks to young females had the greatest effects both on riboflavin status and benefits to haematological parameters (3). 

 

References

  1.  Saedisomeolia A, Ashoori M (2018). Riboflavin in Human Health: A Review of Current Evidences. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2018;83:57-81. doi: 10.1016/bs.afnr.2017.11.002. Epub 2018 Feb 2. PMID: 29477226.

  2. Riboflavin. Fact Sheet for Health Professionals (2021). Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) National institute of health. 

  3. Kennedy, D. (2016). B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy—A Review. Nutrients, 8(2), 68.

B3

What is B3?

Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is an important nutrient. In fact, every part of your body needs it to function properly. All tissues in the body convert Niacin into its main active form, the crucial coenzyme NAD.

More than 400 enzymes require NAD to catalyse reactions in the body, which is more than any other vitamin-derived coenzyme. NAD is primarily involved in reactions that transfer the energy in carbohydrates, fats, and proteins to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cell’s primary energy currency.

Benefits 

Supports Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)

  • Niacinamide has also been found to stimulate GABA receptors, without binding to the receptor sites, thus creating a benzodiazepine-like effect. (2). 

Metabolism and cellular energy 

  •  NAD is primarily involved in catabolic reactions that transfer the potential energy in carbohydrates, fats, and proteins to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cell’s primary energy currency (1) 

References 

  1. Niacin. Fact Sheet for Health Professionals (2021). Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) National institute of health.

  2. Möhler H, Polc P, Cumin R, Pieri L, Kettler R (1978). Nicotinamide is a brain constituent with benzodiazepine-like actions. Nature. 1979 Apr 5;278(5704):563-5. doi: 10.1038/278563a0. PMID: 155222.

B6

What is Vitamin B6 ? 

Vitamin B6 is one of the eight essential B vitamins. This group of vitamins is important for proper cell function, and they help with everything from metabolism to creating blood cells and keeping cells healthy. Also known as pyridoxine, Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin, which means it dissolves in water. The body does not store Vitamin B6, and releases any excess in urine, so people need to get enough vitamin B6 every day to avoid running low.  

Benefits: 

Supports neurotransmitter synthesis

  • B6 it is particularly well known for its important function in the synthesis of neurotransmitters like dopamine from L‐dopa, serotonin from 5‐HTP, and gamma‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) from glutamate” (1). 

  • The role of vitamin B6 in amino acid metabolism makes it a rate limiting cofactor in the synthesis of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), noradrenaline and the hormone melatonin. The synthesis of these neurotransmitters is differentially sensitive to vitamin B6 levels, with even mild deficiency resulting in preferential down-regulation of GABA and serotonin synthesis (2). 

References 

  1. Calderón‐Ospina CA, Nava‐Mesa MO (2020). B Vitamins in the nervous system: Current knowledge of the biochemical modes of action and synergies of thiamine, pyridoxine, and cobalamin. Journal of Clinical Otolaryngology

  2. Kennedy D. O. (2016). B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy--A Review. Nutrients, 8(2), 68.